The latest researches on a subject "Asbestos and health"

V.A.Kochelaev , the chairman of expert council of the noncommercial organization "Chrysotile association". The brochure. 2010. Asbest city.

Once again about asbestos and the newest international medical researches connected with it.

In the brochure the review of results of the newest international medical researches, concerning possibilities of safe use in controllable conditions of chrysotile-asbestos, his biological activity in comparison with ampibole is executed. Researches are spent in 1998-2009 by scientists of the different countries: Austria, Great Britain, Greece, Israel, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, the republic of South Africa, etc. The occasion to a writing of the given brochure is the desire of the author to draw attention of the public to discussion about possibility of safe, controllable use of chrysotile-asbestos and materials containing him and products has served. The newest medical scientific data and practical experience, according to the author, confirm that observance of safety rules on manufacture guarantees minimization of cases of professional asbestos caused diseases. The edition is intended for laymen, who interested by a problem of safe use of chrysotile-asbestos (chrysotile) and materials containing him and products. The author - Vladimir Andreevich Kochelaev, the chairman of scientific and technical advisory council of the noncommercial organization "Chrysotile association". 


The term "asbestos" is a commercial name of group of natural fibrous minerals (used in industrial products) of different content and crystal structure, physical and chemical properties, and also features of biological influence on a human body. Two groups of such minerals are known: serpentinite (chrysotile) and amphibole (crokidolite, amosite, antophilite, tremolite and aktinolite). One of basic distinctions between asbestos kinds is their stability to influence of acids. Acid stable asbestos of amphibole group, getting to lungs of the person, can be and collect in them throughout all life. It causes high risk for the person as at professional, and nonprofessional influence on him of amphibole. Fibres of chrysotile asbestos are capable to be dissolved quickly in the sour environment, including pulmonary, and are deduced from an organism by a natural way. 

Properties of different kinds of asbestos



Amphibole group







Basic components, %




Chemical formula




Stability to acid




Fibre kind

Elastic, tubular

Firm, needle

Firm, needle


The question of influence of asbestos on health of the person causes in the world numerous disputes, discussions, especially last decade when he has appeared in the center of numerous, most various interests: medical, ecological, commercial, political and others. 

Anti-chrysotile campaign is constructed basically on doubtful, erroneous and false forecasts about quantity of death from chrysotile use. Campaign in 1978 in the USA after the report of National institute of a cancer and National institute of environment studying, in which it is said that asbestos application the next three decades will lead to 2 million premature death, has begun. And during the same time the Minister of Health, social security and education of the USA of J.Caliphano has declared at a trade-union leaders meeting that annually 17 % of all death from malignant new growths in the USA will be connected with asbestos application. 

In 1981 known English scientific epidemiologists R.Doll and R.Peto from Oxford university have given the comment to these forecasts: the report of National institute of a cancer is written more likely from political, than from scientific reasons. The figures resulted in him "to such degree are erroneous that it is not necessary to take seriously any arguments having at least remote relation to them". Nevertheless these erroneous figures have been apprehended by a society with all gravity, and antiasbestine campaign with newspapers, magazines and television was incoming into houses of citizens of the USA, Europe and other countries and became some kind of the factor distracting from other problems. 

Today, after the lapse of more than 30 years, it is possible to ascertain that the above-named forecasts haven't something in common with the validity. Forecasts have left in a non-existence, now nobody remembers them, but the phobia of asbestos caused by them lives. Her new forecasts, for example epidemiologist Dz.Peto in 1999 has declared that "in the nearest З5 years of Europeans becomes less on 250 thousand because of a mesothelioma and on 500 thousand because of a cancer of the lungs caused by application of asbestos". Has passed 10 years, but preconditions of that forecasts will come true, no. However the antiasbestine hysteria generated by them, proceeds. 

According to different authors, risks at influence of chrysotile and amphibole differ in hundreds times. It is necessary to notice that countries of Western Europe and the USA in which antiasbestine campaign has arisen, many long years were the basic consumers of amphibole asbestos extracted in Southern Africa, Australia, Finland and Italy. Amphibole used as a part of materials and products (insulating covers, a dusting, friable panels, etc.), the most dangerous from the point of view of ability of allocation of free fibres in environment. 

In Russia and countries of Eastern Europe amphibole asbestos in building wasn't used also by methods of a dusting of asbestos on building designs didn't apply. Therefore not casually positions of scientists and the public of the different countries in relation to asbestos are various, as they are based on knowledge and experience of use of different kinds of asbestos and methods of his application. 

In second half of twentieth century a significant amount of scientific researches is spent according to influence of asbestos on health of the person. However the majority of researchers didn't differentiate the risk connected with application of his different kinds. 

Only last decade many scientists, including those countries where asbestos is forbidden, recognized necessity to differentiate risks in connection with use of chrysotile and amphibole, and also to state an estimation of real danger of application pure chrysotile (without asbestos impurity of amphibole groups) in controllable conditions. 

The urgency of scientific researches consists that controllable use chrysotile concerns destinies of people working not only in chrysotile industry, but also billions people in the world, needing accessible habitation and pure potable water. It is caused by that chrysotile is a component of chrysotile cement - one of the most durable building materials from whom both the most hygienic and cheap pipes and slate and a roofing material popular and accessible at the price are maked. The received results deny the point of view treated in a number of the countries on extreme danger of all kinds of asbestos. 

In the given brochure results of the newest scientific researches for the purpose of reception of answers to questions are systematized: 

1. How chrysotile and amphibole influence on health ? 
2. Whether can cause pure chrysotile-asbestos a mesothelioma ? 
3. Whether exist threshold level of an exposition below which adverse influence on health isn't found out ? 
4. Whether low levels of an exposition of chrysotile can cause the raised risk of oncological diseases? 

Answers to these questions are based on results of epidemiological researches pure chrysotile, executed in last years. 

Possibility of safe, controllable chrysotile use.
The state-of-the-art review of the researches executed by scientists of the different countries.

The urgency of a question on possibility of safe, controllable chrysotile use is caused by that the different organizations of antiasbestine sense, first of all European, still create round application of chrysotile fear and even psychosis atmosphere. With that end in view by means of mass media, at numerous international seminars and conferences they spend the most powerful РR-actions. Unfortunately, separate officials of the International organization of work, World Health Organization, Secretary of the Rotterdam convention and others haven't taken the trouble to understand a being of disputes. Without penetrating into an essence of the numerous scientific researches proving possibility of safe application of a mineral (in 60 countries of the world chrysotile is used already more than 100 years and continues to be used !). They have simply agreed with arguments of the European commission initiating antiasbestine campaign, which purpose - an interdiction of application of all kinds of asbestos, including chrysotile, internationally. 

The given state-of-the-art review is executed on the basis of the medical scientific researches 1998-2009 concerning in a greater degree of problems of chrysotile use and containing him of materials and products as application of asbestos of amphibole groups is forbidden by the Convention the SQUANDERER number 162. 

The following concerns the cores from these researches: 

1. Research "The Professional exposition to asbestos and artificial mineral fibres and risk of development of a cancer of lungs: multicenter research on type "a case - a control" in Europe", spent in 1998-2002 under the direction of the International agency on cancer studying. 17 scientists took part in him from leading institutes of 11 countries: Great Britain, Hungary, Israel, New Zealand, Poland, Russia, Romania, Slovakia, France, Czechia, Sweden. The work purpose - to investigate influence of professional contact to asbestos and artificial mineral fibres on development of a cancer of lungs in the population of Europe. The professional and socially-demographic information on 2205 to the found out cases of a cancer of lungs at men and to 2305 control cases has been collected for the first time. Inhabitants of Great Britain and six countries of Central and the Eastern Europe from 16 cities became objects of researches. 

Exposition to asbestos and risk of development of a cancer of lungs
in Great Britain and in the countries of Central and the Eastern Europe


Great Britain

Central and Eastern Europe

Exposition kind

Case / control

Parity of chances *

95% Confidential interval

Case / control

Parity of chances *

95% Confidential interval

Exposition to asbestos

84 / 56


1,07 - 3,21

233 / 246


0,73 - 1,15

* Parity of chances adjusted for the data about the research center, age, tobacco smoking, about contacts to quartz, arsenic, chrome, cadmium and other dangerous substances.

On the basis of the received results scientists have drawn following conclusions: 

- in the countries Central and the Eastern Europe the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs in connection with chrysotile it is not revealed;
- at the Englishmen contacting to amphibole-asbestos, the raised risk of a cancer of lungs is registered;
- the revealed distinctions are caused by type of an applied fibre and conditions of professional contact (in the countries Central and the Eastern Europe used basically chrysotile from the USSR and only in very small amounts of amphibole, and thus the method of a dusting of asbestos on building designs wasn't applied). 

2. Research "Death rate of workers on two asbestos cement enterprises in Poland"; (2000) N.Sheshenija-Dabrovski, U.Vilchinski, V.Shimchak (Institute of medicine of work, Lodz, Poland).

Conclusion of scientists: "On two asbestos cement factories using only chrysotile, the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs in a cohort it is not revealed". 

3. Research "Death rate from a cancer among the Lithuanian workers of the asbestos cement industries"; (2004) G.Smalajt, J.Kurtinajtis (Institute of oncology of the Vilnius university, Lithuania), A.Andersen (the Norwegian register of a cancer). The basic conclusion of scientists: "At disease studying on two Lithuanian asbestos cement factories using in manufacture only chrysotile, the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs it is not revealed". 

4. Large epidemiological research "Three decades of registration of a cancer and a pleura mesothelioma in Austria where the fibrocement has been invented"; (2003) by M.Nojberger (branch of preventive medicine of Institute of hygiene of environment of the Viennese university) and H.Vutuk (branch of epidemiology of the Institute of research of a cancer of the Viennese university). It is spent in connection with the forecast of epidemiologist Dzh.Peto, made in 1999 concerning the future European epidemic of a mesothelioma the next 35 years which will be caused by asbestos use. Scientists have analysed indicators of disease and death rate from a pleura cancer for three decades (with 1970 for 2001) in Austria and have drawn following conclusions:

- the forecast is made on the basis of the data of Great Britain and six more countries which in considerable quantities applied amphibole asbestos, thus in calculations some doubtful methods of hyperdiagnostics are used;
- in Austria there are no reasons for expectation of considerable growth of cases of a mesothelioma in the future as asbestos application was always supervised better, than in those countries where forecasts were under construction;
- smaller growth of frequency of a mesothelioma is caused by different kinds of used asbestos;
- predictions are far-fetched, strained and forced, their extrapolation on other countries doesn't maintain criticism. 

5. Research "Experience of the republic of South Africa on studying of cases of the mesothelioma caused by influence of asbestos in environment. Whether has value fibre type ?"; (2007) N.Uajt (Institute of lungs, Cape Town), J.Nelson (School of public health services), J.Marri (National institute of factory hygiene). Scientists have carried out the analysis of four researches covering the period with 1976 for 1992 when the republic of South Africa was the largest manufacturer of amphibole asbestos in the world (280 thousand tons/years of crokidolite and amosite) and his main exporter to the Western Europe and the USA. At the same time in this country it was extracted about 100 thousand tons of chrysotile asbestos. 

Scientists have come to following conclusions: 

- connection between amphibole and a mesothelioma is the obvious;
- cases of a mesothelioma caused by chrysotile, it is not revealed. 

6. Research "Death rate among the workers who are exposed to influence of pure chrysotile on manufacture: research for 39 years"; (2008), scientists from Greece L.Sichletidis, etc. (laboratory of studying of the diseases caused by environmental contamination, Clinic of diseases of lungs, University, Tessaloniki). On the basis of the researches covering almost 40-lemny the period, authors have drawn following conclusions: 

- mesothelioma cases it is not revealed;
- the general indicator of death rate of workers at the enterprise was considerably below an indicator of death rate of all population of Greece;
- industrial influence concerning pure chrysotile within admissible levels isn't connected with substantial growth of a cancer of lungs or mesotheliomas. 

All above-named researches are executed by scientists of those countries where the asbestos interdiction is legislatively entered. There is a question: the entered interdictions are how much proved ? The answer is almost unequivocal: in these countries political decisions on an interdiction at first made, and then started to understand, whether there are medical bases for him. The scientific data testified: the bases for an interdiction aren't present. But, despite it, the passed law held good. 

7. "Complex clinical-hygienic and epidemiological researches of working conditions and a state of health working on ten asbestos cement enterprises of Ukraine" have been spent to 2006-2008 to scientific research institute of medicine of work of Medical Science Academy of Ukraine under the direction of the academician Y.I.Kundiev. Whether their results are generalized in the brochure "Probably safe use chrysotile asbestos ? Experience of Ukraine". This work is executed because antiasbestine pressure of the European Union in Ukraine (here it was used only chrysotile from Russia and Kazakhstan) has amplified, it was difficult to resist to which in the absence of own researches. The data of hygienic researches has allowed to draw following conclusions:

- the dust content in air defined by a gravimetric method, on many workplaces, especially at unpacking and a dosage of chrysotile, in 1,6 - 5,8 times exceeded average shift maximum permissible concentration (0,5 mg/cubic meters);
- the maintenance of the fibres, defined by a phase-contrast method, didn't exceed 1 fibre/ml. 

On the basis of clinical researches high level of a pathology of bronchus and pleura systems at the workers who are exposed to influence of chrysotile cement dust, especially among smokers has been revealed. However asbestosis and cancer cases it is not revealed. Epidemiological researches define levels and risks of oncological disease working (3066 persons are surveyed) on chrysotile cement manufactures for 1996-2005. Results are that:

- mid-annual oncological disease has made 88,1 on 100 thousand working (relative risk RR is equal 0,26) that in 3,8 times below a population risk level;
- in relation to regional levels the relative risk at the studied enterprises makes from 0,06 to 0,67. 

8. Researches of scientists of Switzerland, Germany, the USA devoted to studying biological persistence of fibres (1999-2006) are very significant . Unique laboratory trials on animals who testify to fast clarification of lungs from inhaled fibres of chrysotile whereas amphibole fibres steady against the sour environment of lungs, are late in them for the period about one year and more are spent. These researches became an important basis for a kinetic and pathological substantiation of distinctions between chrysotile and amphibole fibres. 

In particular, in 2007 D.Bernshtejn (the adviser for toxicology, Switzerland) and J.Hoskins (a member of the Royal society of chemistry, Great Britain) in article "Chrysotile-asbestos influence on health: the modern view based on the newest scientific data" was generalized by results of researches. Scientists have established that the toxicology of chrysotile which in lungs quickly collapses on set of small particles, is comparable to toxicology of not fibrous minerals, whereas toxicology of amphibole - the answer to their fibrous insoluble structure. Chrysotile is a sheet silicate in which because of distinction of diameters of ions of magnesium and silicon sheets are braided in tubes. 

In the given drawing schematically (scheme A) is shown silicate sheet structure of a chrysotile fibre, the fibre is formed in the form of the thin braided sheet in the thickness 8 Angstroem unit (the resolved link on At chrysotile fibre destruction (scheme B) magnesium is dissolved in the neutral environment, and the silica matrix collapses in the sour environment (Pundsack, 1955; Wypych, 2005). 

Fibre units of chrysotile in the course of enrichment, crushing, and also humidifying are divided into separate parts, up to individual fibre. The external surface of chrysotile fibre is brusit, a mineral on the basis of magnesium. At processing of chrysotile fibres by the diluted acid it is possible to eliminate a magnesium oxide completely. Hydrated silica which remains fibrous under the form, completely loses elastic properties initial chrysotile and has structure amorphous or glass type. Removal of an oxide of magnesium from brusit under the influence of acid weakens fibres of chrysotile and gradually breaks their spatial stability. Sensitivity of chrysotile to acid dissolution is especially important in lungs where macro-phagies are capable to form environment with pH 4,5. On chrysotile fibres which are deduced from lungs and are swallowed, in a stomach hydrochloric acid with pH less than 2 influences. The chemical structure of amphibole fibres is much more difficult. Though their structures are identical, distinctions in a chemical compound are a direct consequence of that the silicate skeleton can include a mix of various ions (depending on containing breed) in space between the silicate tapes forming fibres (Speil and Leinewebeг, 1969).
Theoretical formulas of five amphiboles are following:

crokidolite Na2Fe32+Fe23+Si8O22(OH)2;
amosite (Fe2+,Mg)7Si8O22(OH)2;
 tremolite Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2

antophilite (Mg,Fe2+)7Si8O22(OH)2;
aktinolite Ca2(Mg,Fe2+)5Si8O22(OH)2

The external surface of crystal structure of amphibole is similar to a surface of quartz and possesses the same chemical firmness. Each of amphibole fibres represents dual chains of silicon oxygen tetrahedrons. In a case with tremolite orange spheres represent cations of magnesium and calcium which are stuck together by two chains of a fibre. Communication between chains weak, and they, as a rule, break up to separate fibres along their axis. The weak communications keeping together separate fibres, in lungs are quickly broken off, however amphibole fibres aren't dissolved neither in neutral, nor in the sour environment. 

On the given scheme the amphibole fibre structure and the amphibole fibre disintegration are presented. 


Authors have established that the period of half-removal fibres of asbestos in length more than 20 microns:
- tremolite: never;
- crokidolite: 536 days;
- amosite: 418 days;
- chrysotile: from 0,3 to 11,4 days.

Thereupon it is necessary to remind of the instruction of the European commission on artificial mineral fibres of 1997 which ascertains that if long fibres quickly are dissolved or collapse and disappear from lungs, they don't cause cancerogenic effect. Among mineral fibres chrysotile possesses higher solubility. For comparison researchers have cited the data about the period of half-removal mineral fibres in length more than 20 microns which are used as substitutes of chrysotile and are positioned by manufacturers as safe:
- cellulose fibre: 1046 days;
- ceramic fibre: 55 days;
- para-amides fibre: 45 days;
- glass fiber: 6-79 days;
- stone cotton wool: 5-67 days.

Scientists, naturally, have asked a question: Why experimental researches of pure chrysotile, spent on animals, show, as a rule, high percent of development of a cancer ? Toxicological researches have answered: long inhalation on animals influence of chrysotile was made by very high doses of an exposition, much more above level of modern manufactures, it and has led to an overload of lungs. Therefore their relevance to expositions of the person is extremely low. The toxicological researches of fibres spent in vitro, are very useful to finding-out of possible mechanisms of pathogenesis, however their results are very difficult for interpreting, as they don't reflect distinction in solubility of fibres. During experiments for affirmative reply reception high doses of fibres are used, and they are difficult for extrapolating on the low-level expositions which are taking place in vivo. For the proof of it scientists (for example Bernstein, etc.) have spent experiments on animals with a various exposition to chrysotile and have received such results:
- at average concentration of chrysotile fibres in a dust 76 fibre/sm and L more than 20 microns, within 90 days of influence and 92 days of restoration of an organism - developments of fibrousis weren't observed;
- at concentration 207 fibre/sm and L more than 20 microns was observed small fibrousis. Researchers have drawn a conclusion:
- at enough high concentration of chrysotile containing, as well as any other mineral dust, and the big duration of an exposition there is a potential possibility of development of diseases;
- at low levels of an exposition lungs of the person can quite cope with short fibres and particles arriving in them. 

9. The international research "Studying of working conditions and a state of health of the workers occupied on extraction and enrichment of asbestos in Siberia". In 2001 at industrial complex "Uralasbest" enterprises (the city of Asbest of Sverdlovsk area) within the limits of the joint Russian-Finnish-American scientific project four establishments: National institute of a labor safety of the USA, the Finnish institute of medicine of work, the scientific research institute of medicine of work of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and the Ekaterinburg medical center of science is executed his final stage. At performance of the given work have been spent:
- radiological inspection of 2003 working industrial complexes;
- research of functions of external breath at 414 workers who have passed radiological inspection;
- profound medical examination of 289 workers;
- an estimation of existing and last levels of a dust content at the industrial complex enterprises.
Middle age of the surveyed has made 47 years (from 27 to 78). The experience of work in the conditions of influence chrysotile dust from 1 year till 47 years (on the average 22 years). The minimum time last from the beginning of contact, equaled to 1 year, the maximum 59 years (on the average 25 years). The majority of the surveyed worked those years when dust content levels at the enterprise reached tens and hundreds milligrams in 1 cubic m. Thus almost at 90 % surveyed, despite high levels of a dust content on workplaces and the long experience of work, wasn't observed radiological changes in an organism, characteristic for action of a dust of chrysotile-asbestos. In 70 % of cases in general any radiological changes it has not been revealed. Changes were observed mainly at workers of the old factories closed by the time of carrying out of research. Dependence between a dose of a dust and effect was accurately traced. 


Results of the newest researches spent in the different countries on pure chrysotile, are almost identical. However opponents of use chrysotile persistently propagandize results of the researches spent in Europe, the USA, Australia and testifying to negative consequences of application of a mix amphibole and chrysotile asbestos. 

It is necessary to notice that antiasbestine campaign has both certain positive, and negative results. On the one hand, she has drawn attention of physicians-hygienists to an asbestos problem, and in it her positive role. In many countries the effective systems are developed and introduced in practice, allowing to exclude an adverse effect of asbestos on working and the population. On the other hand, her initiators have generated the opinion convenient for separate politicians and economists which the asbestos interdiction is favourable by means of mass media. They stimulate continuation of campaign mind some asbestos and involve in her scientists and the international organizations. 

However in the conditions of aggressive antiasbestine campaign the objective scientific data confirming possibility of safe use chrysotile and materials containing him, is called into question for the reason that they won't be coordinated with interests: 

- manufacturers of alternative materials and the governments supporting them;
- the organizations specializing on removal of asbestos from buildings;
- the lawyers, earning hundred millions dollars on so-called "victims of asbestos";
- some scientists financed from the European and American funds and focused on reception of results, arranging customer;
- politicians and the public organizations which have found work on "a muddy" wave of struggle with "world murderer";
- other organizations financially dependent on antiasbestine lobbies. 

Not without reason the American council about a science and health in October, 2007 in the published report "The exposition to asbestos: how much she is dangerous ?" ascertained: "The problem now is, whether can to use regulating departments the modern scientific data even if it will demand to change existing system of concepts or views". 

Frequently supporters of an interdiction, speaking about carcinogenicity of asbestos, prove the arguments, referring to documents the CART and IARC. But they intentionally ignore their essence, using only that him is favourable to achievement of specific goals. 

At 60th session of the World assembly of public health services in 2007 in accepted "the Global plan of action on health protection working for 2008-2017" in item 10 it is written down:" Activity the CART will include carrying out of global campaigns for the purpose of liquidation of the illnesses connected with asbestos, taking into account the differentiated approach to regulation of his various forms ". 

In last reports IARC (March and October, 2009) in the list of carcinogens of 1 class of danger are named: aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, dioxine, formaldehyde etc. Also represent cancerogenic danger for the person: tobacco (even passive smoking), a nut an areca, alcohol, a coal smoke, salty fish; manufacture of rubber, a skin and footwear from her; beryliy, cadmium, nickel, chrome and their connections; a crystal dust of silica, arsenic etc. Inhalation - the basic way of an exposition to arsenic on a workplace in such industries, as molding of nonferrous metals, arsenic manufacture, a woodworking, glass manufacture, manufacture and application of pesticides on the basis of arsenic, electronics. Epidemiological researches have shown that inhalation and per-oral expositions to arsenic cause development of a cancer of a lung, a skin and a bladder. 

In report IARC it is told about dependence between asbestos and the raised risk of development of a cancer of lungs and mesotheliomas. However authors notice that "responses of respiratory organs to an inhalation exposition to asbestos fibres essentially differ between kinds" (means chrysotile and amphibole). This conclusion will be coordinated with the formulation the CART. 

It would seem, the true has triumphed. However, despite the numerous scientific data confirming possibility supervised, safe use chrysotile, propagandists of an interdiction of his application continue to impose to a society an asbestos phobia. The proof of their bias is that from set of carcinogens they focus attention only on chrysotile, distracting the international public from such vital problems, as: struggle against chronic diseases (cardiovascular, a cancer, a stroke, a diabetes, AIDS, a tuberculosis), children's death rate etc. which decision of CART named among priority directions of the activity. 

Discussion proceeds in a wide format of the international organizations. Who will win: supporters of real preventive methods of struggle against occupational diseases or for whom antiasbestine campaign has turned to profitable business ? It would be desirable to believe that the common sense and the real care about professional health of workers will prevail over conjectures of antiasbestine lobbies. 

And, apparently, it occurs. It has been above mentioned "terrible" forecasts of English epidemiologist Dzh.Peto in 1999. In 2009 his position in relation to chrysotile has considerably changed. In the presentation on the Symposium in Harward on July, 24th, 2009 "World tendencies of death rate from a mesothelioma" he has declared that amphiboles are more dangerous, than chrysotile because they aren't deduced from lungs. Dzh.Peto shares opinion of scientifics Hodzheon and Darnton that the risk of occurrence of a mesothelioma for chrysotile, amosite and crokidolite makes accordingly 1:100:500, and occurrence of a cancer from chrysotile and amphiboles is in limits 1:10 and 1:50. He says: "The mesothelioma is caused mainly by influence of blue and brown asbestos. Risk of occurrence from white asbestos much less". Dzh.Peto confirms: "Harm exaggeration of chrysotile distracts attention from harm of amphiboles". He considers that man's death rate from a mesothelioma almost five times above in Great Britain, than in the USA, because of influence amphiboles, instead of chrysotile. Conclusions of the report of Peto have caused sharp irritation from antiasbestine lobbies which arranged pickets with slogans "don't recognize the report of Peto", etc. 

It follows from this that, despite pressure of antiasbestine forces and persecution on scientists who support the use of chrysotile (and it is in "the civilized" democratic countries !) the objective scientific data makes the way in life. 

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